The use of these elements as children of form is deprecated; instead, they should always be children of a gramGrp within form when describing that particular form of the word. These we refer to as the constituent parts or constituents of the entry; some dictionary constituents possess no internal structure, while others are most naturally viewed as groups of smaller elements, which may be marked in their own right. can you write my research paper mla format example Pronunciations, usage labels, and glosses can be tagged using the pron , usg , and gloss elements defined elsewhere in these Guidelines.
It is recommended to use the sense element even for an entry that has only one sense to group together all parts of the definition relating to the word sense since this leads to more consistent encoding across entries. The def element directly contains the text of the definition; unlike form and gramGrp , it does not serve solely to group a set of smaller elements. best custom essay service college The hierarchic structure of a dictionary entry is enforced by the structures defined in this module. In a very conservative transcription of the editorial view of a text, rendition characters e.
Further, some users wish to encode both of these views of the data, and retain the links between related elements of the two encodings. The examples below illustrate this point. buy a research paper format sample Some users may ultimately be concerned with retaining only the lexical view, or they may wish to preserve the typographic or editorial views as a reference text, perhaps as a guard against the loss or misinterpretation of information in the translation process.
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In an encoding of the lexical view of a text, there are degrees of departure from the original data: Here is an alternative way of representing the same structure, this time using dictScrap: The selection and combination of modules to form a TEI schema is described in 1. Some researchers may wish to retain all three views, and study their interrelations, since research questions may well span all three views.
Often, however, pronunciation is given. The attributes described in the previous section are useful only when the order of material is the same in both the editorial and the lexical view. The following encoding preserves these relations: These should be tagged using elements defined elsewhere in these Guidelines, chiefly in the core module chapter 3 Elements Available in All TEI Documents together with the specialized dictionary elements defined in this chapter. Also, the middle dot in quoted entries is rendered with a full stop, while within the sample transcriptions hyphenation and syllabification points are indicated by a vertical bar , regardless of their appearance in the source text.
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A particular problem may be posed by the common practice of presenting two alternate forms of a word in a single string, by marking some parts of the word as optional in some forms. It may be convenient as has been done in the text of this chapter to use a simple transliteration scheme for this; such a scheme should however be properly documented in the header. phd dissertation write service english literature Some dictionaries provide distinct entries for homographs, on the basis of etymology, part-of-speech, or both, and typically provide a numeric superscript on the headword identifying the homograph number.
The usg element is a specialization of this to mark usage labels in particular. As noted above, dictionary entries, and subordinate levels within dictionary entries, may comprise several constituent parts, each providing a different type of information about the word treated. paraphrasing ielts pdf In some cases, the examples are quotations from another source, and are occasionally followed by a citation to the author.
Dictionary entries frequently refer to information in other entries, often using extremely dense notations to convey the headword of the entry to be sought, the particular part of the entry being referred to, and the nature of the information to be sought there synonyms, antonyms, usage notes, etymology, an illustration, etc. Gk pneuma breath — more at pneumatic ]: Such lexical resources are moreover of interest to many communities with different and sometimes conflicting goals.
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It is however recommended that entry be used in preference to entryFree wherever possible. In addition to a series of entry elements, the superEntry may contain a preliminary form group see section 9. These text divisions might, for example, correspond to sections for different letters of the alphabet, or to sections for different languages in a bilingual dictionary, as in the following example:
A possible alternative encoding would be: When there is a conflict between the encodings for the lexical and editorial views, the principles described in the following sections may be applied. In general, an electronic encoding of a text will allow the recovery of at least one view of that text the one which guided the encoding ; if editorial and typographic practices are consistently applied in the production of a printed dictionary, or if exceptions to the rules are consistently recorded in the electronic encoding, then it is in principle possible to recover the editorial view from an encoding of the lexical view, and the typographic view from an encoding of the editorial view. In practice, of course, the severe compression of information in dictionaries, the variety of methods by which this compression is achieved, the complexity of formulating completely explicit rules for editorial and typographic practice, and the relative rarity of complete consistency in the application of such rules, all make the mechanical transformation of information from one view into another something of a vexed question. The following example demonstrates the use of the target attribute to refer to a specific form of the headword: